Multiple linear regression with Python, numpy, matplotlib, plot in 3d

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  • #1499
    Charles Durfee

    Background info / Notes:

    Multiple regression: Y = b0 + b1*X1 + b2*X2 + … +bnXn
    compare to Simple regression: Y = b0 + b1*X

    In English:
    Y is the predicted value of the dependent variable
    X1 through Xn are n distinct independent variables
    b0 is the value of Y when all of the independent variables (X1 through Xn) are equal to zero
    b1 through bn are the slope of the relationship between the dependent variable and the independed variable that is holding constant of all other independent variables.

    Think of it as a system of equations:
    Y1 = (b + mX1) + e1
    Y2 = (b + mX2) + e2

    Yn = (b + mXn) + en
    We can then set up a matrix equation with the following matrices:

    Y = |…..|

           |1 X1|
    X = |. ..|
           |1 Xn|

    A = |m|

    E = |…..|
    Which gives us the matrix equation: Y = XA + E
    We just need to solve for A

    Use Linear Algebra to solve
    A = (X^T * X)^-1 * (X^T * Y)

    Two helpful links that explain how we get this equation:

    Convert the equation to code:
    Using the np.linalg.solve function we will not need to invert the first term
    a = np.linalg.solve(, X),, Y))

    You can download the code or dataset from github here.

    The full code:

    import numpy as np
    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
    from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D
    # create arrays for the data points
    X = []
    Y = []
    #read the csv file
    csvReader = open('BloodPressure.csv')
    #skips the header line
    for line in csvReader:
        y, x1, x2 = line.split(',')
        X.append([float(x1), float(x2), 1]) # add the bias term at the end
    # use numpy arrays so that we can use linear algebra later
    X = np.array(X)
    Y = np.array(Y)
    # graph the data
    fig = plt.figure(1)
    ax = fig.add_subplot(111, projection='3d')
    ax.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], Y)
    ax.set_zlabel('Blood Pressure')
    # Use Linear Algebra to solve
    a = np.linalg.solve(, X),, Y))
    predictedY =, a)
    # calculate the r-squared
    SSres = Y - predictedY
    SStot = Y - Y.mean()
    rSquared = 1 - ( /
    print("the r-squared is: ", rSquared)
    print("the coefficient (value of a) for age, weight, constant is: ", a)
    # create a wiremesh for the plane that the predicted values will lie
    xx, yy, zz = np.meshgrid(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], X[:, 2])
    combinedArrays = np.vstack((xx.flatten(), yy.flatten(), zz.flatten())).T
    Z =
    # graph the original data, predicted data, and wiremesh plane
    fig = plt.figure(2)
    ax = fig.add_subplot(111, projection='3d')
    ax.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], Y, color='r', label='Actual BP')
    ax.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], predictedY, color='g', label='Predicted BP')
    ax.plot_trisurf(combinedArrays[:, 0], combinedArrays[:, 1], Z, alpha=0.5)
    ax.set_zlabel('Blood Pressure')



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